Daily Bread for 7.8.16

Good morning, Whitewater.

Friday in town will be mostly sunny with a high of eighty-four. Sunrise is 5:25 AM and sunset 8:34 PM, for 15h 09m 09s of daytime. The moon is a waxing crescent with 17.9% of its visible disk illuminated.

On this day in 1776, John Nixon makes a public address:

On July 8, 1776, he made the first public proclamation of the Declaration of Independence from the steps of the Pennsylvania State House. The same year, Nixon was promoted colonel and later served under George Washington at the Battle of Princeton. In 1776, he became a member of the Navy Board, and two years later was with Washington again at Valley Forge.

On this day in 1850, a man declares himself a king:

1850 – James Jesse Strang Crowned King

On this date James Jesse Strang, leader of the estranged Mormon faction, the Strangites, was crowned king; the only man to achieve such a title in America. When founder Joseph Smith was assassinated, Strang forged a letter from Smith dictating he was to be the heir. The Mormon movement split into followers of Strang and followers of Brigham Young. As he gained more followers (but never nearly as many as Brigham Young), Strang became comparable to a Saint, and in 1850 was crowned King James in a ceremony in which he wore a discarded red robe of a Shakespearean actor, and a metal crown studded with a cluster of stars as his followers sang him hosannas.

Soon after his crowning, he announced that Mormonism embraced and supported polygamy. (Young’s faction was known to have practiced polygamy, but had not at this time announced it publicly.)

A number of followers lived in Walworth County, including Strang at a home in Burlington. In 1856 Strang was himself assassinated, leaving five wives. Without Strang’s leadership, his movement disintegrated. [Source: Wisconsin Saints and Sinners, by Fred L. Holmes, p. 106-121]

A Google a Day asks a history question: “What war was ended by the treaty that was ratified by the U.S. Senate on February 6, 1899?”

Daily Bread for 7.7.16

Good morning, Whitewater.

Thursday in town will be cloudy, with a daytime high of eighty-seven, and an even chance of afternoon thundershowers. Sunrise is 5:24 AM and sunset 8:35 PM, for 15h 10m 18s of daytime. The moon is a waxing crescent with 10.7% of its visible disk illuminated.

Whitewater’s Landmarks Commission is scheduled to meet at 6 PM, and there is a Whitewater Fire Department Meeting at 6 PM.

Columns of Hoover Dam being filled with concrete, February 1934 (looking upstream from the Nevada rim). Bureau of Reclamation. Via Wikipedia.
Columns of Hoover Dam being filled with concrete, February 1934 (looking upstream from the Nevada rim). Bureau of Reclamation. Via Wikipedia.

On this day in 1930, construction of the Hoover Dam begins:

Over the next five years, a total of 21,000 men would work ceaselessly to produce what would be the largest dam of its time, as well as one of the largest manmade structures in the world.

Although the dam would take only five years to build, its construction was nearly 30 years in the making. Arthur Powell Davis, an engineer from the Bureau of Reclamation, originally had his vision for the Hoover Dam back in 1902, and his engineering report on the topic became the guiding document when plans were finally made to begin the dam in 1922….

Even with Hoover’s exuberant backing and a regional consensus around the need to build the dam, Congressional approval and individual state cooperation were slow in coming. For many years, water rights had been a source of contention among the western states that had claims on the Colorado River. To address this issue, Hoover negotiated the Colorado River Compact, which broke the river basin into two regions with the water divided between them. Hoover then had to introduce and re-introduce the bill to build the dam several times over the next few years before the House and Senate finally approved the bill in 1928.

In 1929, Hoover, now president, signed the Colorado River Compact into law, claiming it was “the most extensive action ever taken by a group of states under the provisions of the Constitution permitting compacts between states.”

Once preparations were made, the Hoover Dam’s construction sprinted forward: The contractors finished their work two years ahead of schedule and millions of dollars under budget. Today, the Hoover Dam is the second highest dam in the country and the 18th highest in the world. It generates enough energy each year to serve over a million people…

On this day in 1832, future presidents make camp near Palmyra:

On this date during the Black Hawk War, General Atkinson led his entire militia, which included future presidents Abraham Lincoln and Zachary Taylor, to a camp just south of Palmyra. [Source: History Just Ahead: A Guide to Wisconsin’s Historical Markers, edited by Sarah Davis McBride]

A Google a Day asks a business question: “Because the company increased shareholder dividends for 25 years in a row, what S&P designation was granted the world’s largest distributor of toys?”

Daily Bread for 7.6.16

Good morning, Whitewater.

Midweek in town will bring partly cloudy skies, isolated thunderstorms, and a high of ninety. Sunrise is 5:24 AM and sunset 6:35 PM, for 15h 11m 23s of daytime. The moon is a waxing crescent with 5.1% of its visible disk illuminated.

Whitewater’s Parks & Recreation Board meets at 6:30 PM this evening.

On 7.6.1775, Congress issues a declaration, almost a year before another, more decisive one:

On this day in 1775, one day after restating their fidelity to King George III and wishing him “a long and prosperous reign” in the Olive Branch Petition, Congress sets “forth the causes and necessity of their taking up arms” against British authority in the American colonies. The declaration also proclaimed their preference “to die free men rather than live as slaves.”

As in the Olive Branch Petition, Congress never impugned the motives of the British king. Instead, they protested, “The large strides of late taken by the legislature of Great Britain toward establishing over these colonies their absolute rule…” Congress provided a history of colonial relations in which the king served as the sole governmental connection between the mother country and colonies, until, in their eyes, the victory against France in the Seven Years’ War caused Britain’s “new ministry finding all the foes of Britain subdued” to fall upon “the unfortunate idea of subduing her friends also.” According to the declaration, the king’s role remained constant, but “parliament then for the first time assumed a power of unbounded legislation over the colonies of America,” which resulted in the bloodletting at Lexington and Concord in April 1775.

At this point, Congress assumed that if the king could merely be made to understand what Parliament and his ministers had done, he would rectify the situation and return the colonists to their rightful place as fully equal members of the British empire. When the king sided with Parliament, however, Congress moved beyond a Declaration of Arms to a Declaration of Independence.

On this day in 1934, violence strikes a malted milk plant:

Seven injured in riot at Horlick plant

On this day three policemen and five office employees of the Horlick Malted Milk Corp. were injured when a crowd of strike sympathizers stormed a motorcade of employees entering the plant’s main gate. Emerging from a crowd of 500 striking employees, the rioters overpowered police escorts, shattered windshields and windows, and pelted officers with rocks. Police blamed Communist influence for the incident, and former Communist congressional candidate John Sekat was arrested in the incident. Employees of the plant were demanding wage increases and recognition of the Racine County Workers Committee as their collective bargaining agent. [Source: Capital Times 7/6/1934, p. 1]

A Google a Day asks a winding search question about history: “What was the highest political office held by the third husband of the woman who was later married to the first husband of Patti Sacks?”

Daily Bread for 7.5.16

Good morning, Whitewater.

Tuesday in town will begin with clouds, give way to sunshine, with a high temperature of eighty-seven. Sunrise is 5:23 AM and sunset 8:35 PM, for 15h 12m 26s of daytime. The moon is a waxing crescent with 1.3% of its visible disk illuminated.

View on approach to Jupiter.  Via NASA.
View on approach to Jupiter. Via NASA.

After a five-year journey, NASA’s Juno probe has arrived and entered orbit around Jupiter:

PASADENA, California — For the second time ever, a spacecraft has slipped into orbit around huge and mysterious Jupiter.

NASA’s robotic Juno probe began circling the solar system’s largest planet tonight (July 4), ending a nearly five-year journey through deep space and becoming the first spacecraft to enter Jupiter orbit since NASA’s Galileo mission did so in 1995.

The milestone came late tonight, as Juno fired its main engine in a crucial 35-minute burn that slowed the probe down enough to be captured by Jupiter’s powerful gravity. That burn started at 11:18 p.m. EDT (0318 GMT Tuesday) and ended on schedule at 11:53 p.m. [Photos: NASA’s Juno Mission to Jupiter]

On this day in 1832, Gen. Atkinson enters the Trembling Lands:

On this date, General Atkinson and his troops entered the area known by the Native Americans as “trembling lands” in their pursuit of Black Hawk. The area was some 10 square miles and contained a large bog.

Although the land appeared safe, it would undulate or tremble for yards when pressure was applied. Many of the militiamen were on horses, which plunged to their bellies in the swamp. The “trembling lands” forced Atkinson to retrace his steps back toward the Rock River, in the process losing days in his pursuit of Black Hawk. [Source: Along the Black Hawk Trail by William G. Stark]

A Google a Day asks a history question: “Who was the former municipal judge that became the source of criminal allegations against the 42nd U.S. President?”

Daily Bread for 7.4.16

Good morning, Whitewater.

Independence Day in Whitewater will be cloudy with a high of seventy-six. Sunrise is 5:22 AM and sunset 8:36 PM, for 15h 13m 24s of daytime. We’ve a new moon today.

On this day in 1863, Gen. Grant wins in the west:

The Siege of Vicksburg (May 18 – July 4, 1863) was the final major military action in the Vicksburg Campaign of the American Civil War. In a series of maneuvers, UnionMaj. Gen.Ulysses S. Grant and his Army of the Tennesseecrossed the Mississippi River and drove the ConfederateArmy of Mississippi led by Lt. Gen.John C. Pemberton into the defensive lines surrounding the fortress city of Vicksburg, Mississippi.

Vicksburg was the last major Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River; therefore, capturing it completed the second part of the Northern strategy, the Anaconda Plan. When two major assaults (May 19 and 22, 1863) against the Confederate fortifications were repulsed with heavy casualties, Grant decided to besiege the city beginning on May 25. With no reinforcement, supplies nearly gone, and after holding out for more than forty days, the garrison finally surrendered on July 4.

The successful ending of the Vicksburg Campaign significantly degraded the ability of the Confederacy to maintain its war effort, as described in the Aftermath section of the campaign article. Some historians—e.g., Ballard, p. 308—suggest that the decisive battle in the campaign was actually the Battle of Champion Hill, which, once won by Grant, made victory in the subsequent siege a foregone conclusion. This action (combined with the surrender of Port Hudson to Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks on July 9) yielded command of the Mississippi River to the Union forces, who would hold it for the rest of the conflict.

The Confederate surrender on July 4, 1863, following the siege at Vicksburg, is sometimes considered, when combined with Gen. Robert E. Lee‘s defeat at Gettysburg by Maj. Gen. George G. Meade and retreat beginning the same day, the turning point of the war. It cut off the states of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas from the rest of the Confederacy, as well as communication with Confederate forces in the Trans-Mississippi Department for the remainder of the war.

On this day in 1836, a territorial governor takes his oath:

On this date in Mineral Point, Col. Henry Dodge took the oath of office to become the first Governor of the newly created Territory of Wisconsin. The Territory, previously attached to Michigan, encompassed what is now the states of Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota and portions of North and South Dakota. [Source:History Just Ahead: A Guide to Wisconsin’s Historical Markers, edited by Sarah Davis McBride]

Daily Bread for 7.3.16

Good morning, Whitewater.

Sunday in town will be partly sunny with a high of seventy-eight. Sunrise is 5:22 AM and sunset is 8:36 PM, for 15h 14m 19s of daytime. The moon is a waning crescent with 1.3 percent of its visible disk illuminated.

Sometimes an ordinary dive turns into something more —

On this day in 1863, Union forces repulse Confederates on the third day of fighting at Gettybsurg:

Around 3 p.m., the cannon fire subsided, and 12,500 Southern soldiers stepped from the ridgeline and advanced the three-quarters of a mile (1,200 m) to Cemetery Ridge in what is known to history as “Pickett’s Charge“. As the Confederates approached, there was fierce flanking artillery fire from Union positions on Cemetery Hill and north of Little Round Top, and musket and canister fire from Hancock’s II Corps. In the Union center, the commander of artillery had held fire during the Confederate bombardment (in order to save it for the infantry assault, which Meade had correctly predicted the day before), leading Southern commanders to believe the Northern cannon batteries had been knocked out. However, they opened fire on the Confederate infantry during their approach with devastating results. Nearly one half of the attackers did not return to their own lines.

Although the U.S. line wavered and broke temporarily at a jog called the “Angle” in a low stone fence, just north of a patch of vegetation called the Copse of Trees, reinforcements rushed into the breach, and the Confederate attack was repulsed. The farthest advance of Brig. Gen. Lewis A. Armistead‘s brigade of Maj. Gen. George Pickett‘s division at the Angle is referred to as the “High-water mark of the Confederacy“, arguably representing the closest the South ever came to its goal of achieving independence from the Union via military victory.[69] Union and Confederate soldiers locked in hand-to-hand combat, attacking with their rifles, bayonets, rocks and even their bare hands. Armistead ordered his Confederates to turn two captured cannons against Union troops, but discovered that there was no ammunition left, the last double canister shots having been used against the charging Confederates. Armistead was shortly after wounded three times.

Daily Bread for 7.2.16

Good morning, Whitewater.

Saturday in town will be partly sunny with a high of seventy-eight.  Sunrise is 5:21 AM and sunset 8:36 PM, for 15h 15m 10s of daytime.  The moon is a waning crescent with 5.3% of its visible disk illuminated.

Yesterday I posted a photo of an aurora on Jupiter, but NASA and the European Space Agency have a video recording, too, of that phenomenon on the solar system’s largest world:

On this day in 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopts a resolution that “these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved”:

On July 2, South Carolina reversed its position and voted for independence. In the Pennsylvania delegation, Dickinson and Robert Morris abstained, allowing the delegation to vote three-to-two in favor of independence. The tie in the Delaware delegation was broken by the timely arrival of Caesar Rodney, who voted for independence. The New York delegation abstained once again, since they were still not authorized to vote for independence, although they would be allowed to do so by the New York Provincial Congress a week later.[74] The resolution of independence had been adopted with twelve affirmative votes and one abstention. With this, the colonies had officially severed political ties with Great Britain.[75]

On this day in 1863, a lieutenant from Wisconsin records events from the second day of fighting at Gettysburg:

Fighting at Gettysburg began in the afternoon on July 2 and lasted until after dark as Union forces repulsed a series of attacks. That night, Union Major General George Meade held a council of leaders to decide what to do next. Lieutenant Frank Haskell, of Madison, was present when they voted to “allow the Rebel to come up and smash his head against [their position] to any reasonable extent he desired, as he had to-day. After some two hours the council dissolved, and the officers went their several ways.”

Daily Bread for 7.1.16

Good morning, Whitewater.

A new month begins, on a day with increasing sunshine and a high of seventy-four. Sunrise is 5:20 AM and sunset 8:36 PM, for 15h 15m 58s of daytime. The moon is a waning crescent with 12.1% of its visible disk illuminated.


Credit: NASA, ESA
Credit: NASA, ESA

Using the Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers from NASA and the European Space Agency saw and recorded astonishing auroras on Jupiter:

Jupiter, the largest planet in the Solar System, is best known for its colourful storms, the most famous being the Great Red Spot. Now astronomers have focused on another beautiful feature of the planet, using the ultraviolet capabilities of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope.

The extraordinary vivid glows shown in the new observations are known as auroras[1]. They are created when high energy particles enter a planet’s atmosphere near its magnetic poles and collide with atoms of gas. As well as producing beautiful images, this programme aims to determine how various components of Jupiter’s auroras respond to different conditions in the solar wind, a stream of charged particles ejected from the Sun.

This observation programme is perfectly timed as NASA’s Juno spacecraft is currently in the solar wind near Jupiter and will enter the orbit of the planet in early July 2016. While Hubble is observing and measuring the auroras on Jupiter, Juno is measuring the properties of the solar wind itself; a perfect collaboration between a telescope and a space probe [2].

On this day in 1863, the Battle of Gettysburg begins:

After his success at Chancellorsville in Virginia in May 1863, Lee led his army through the Shenandoah Valley to begin his second invasion of the North—the Gettysburg Campaign. With his army in high spirits, Lee intended to shift the focus of the summer campaign from war-ravaged northern Virginia and hoped to influence Northern politicians to give up their prosecution of the war by penetrating as far as Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, or even Philadelphia. Prodded by PresidentAbraham Lincoln, Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker moved his army in pursuit, but was relieved of command just three days before the battle and replaced by Meade.

Elements of the two armies initially collided at Gettysburg on July 1, 1863, as Lee urgently concentrated his forces there, his objective being to engage the Union army and destroy it. Low ridges to the northwest of town were defended initially by a Union cavalry division under Brig. Gen. John Buford, and soon reinforced with two corps of Union infantry. However, two large Confederate corps assaulted them from the northwest and north, collapsing the hastily developed Union lines, sending the defenders retreating through the streets of town to the hills just to the south.

On this day in 1967, it becomes legal to sell margarine in Wisconsin:

1967 – Sale of Oleo Becomes Legal

On this date it became legal to purchase Oleomargarine in Wisconsin. For decades, margarine was considered a contraband spread. Sale of the butter impost0r resulted in fines or possible jail terms. Oleomargarine was sold legally in Illinois and frequently smuggled into Wisconsin.

A Google a Day asks a science question: “What is the atomic weight of the lightest element on the periodic table?”

Daily Bread for 6.30.16

Good morning, Whitewater.

Thursday in town will be partly cloudy, with a high of eighty-one, and a forty percent chance of an afternoon thunderstorm.  Sunrise is 5:20 AM and sunset 8:37 PM, for 15h 16m 42s of daytime.  The moon is a waning crescent with 20.5% of its visible disk illuminated.

Whitewater’s Lock Box Ordinance Committee is scheduled to meet today at 5:30 PM.

On this day in 1775, the Continental Congress establishes Articles of War for a conflict with Britain, beginning with a justification for their adoption:

The consideration of the articles of war being resumed, Congress agreed to the same:

Rules and Regulations

Whereas his Majesty’s most faithful subjects in these Colonies are reduced to a dangerous and critical situation, by the attempts of the British Ministry, to carry into execution, by force of arms, several unconstitutional and oppressive acts of the British parliament for laying taxes in America, to enforce the collection of these taxes, and for altering and changing the constitution and internal police of some of these Colonies, in violation of the natural and civil rights of the Colonies.

And whereas hostilities have been actually commenced in Massachusetts Bay, by the British troops, under the command of General Gage, and the lives of a number of the inhabitants of that Colony destroyed; the town of Boston not only having been long occupied as a garrisoned town in an enemy’s country, but the inhabitants thereof treated with a severity and cruelty not to be justified even towards declared enemies.

And whereas large reinforcements have been ordered, and are soon expected, for the declared purpose of compelling these Colonies to submit to the operation of the said acts, which hath rendered it necessary, and an indispensable duty, for the express purpose of securing and defending these Colonies, and preserving them in safety against all attempts to carry the said acts into execution; that an armed force be raised sufficient to defeat such hostile designs, and preserve and defend the lives, liberties and immunities of the Colonists: for the due regulating and well ordering of which;–

Resolved, That the following Rules and Orders be attended to, and observed by such forces as are or may hereafter be raised for the purposes aforesaid….

On this day in 1951, a Wisconsin rail line goes under:

1951 – Final Line of Milwaukee Electric Railway and Light Co. Abandoned

On this date the final line of the Milwaukee Electric Railway and Light Co. was abandoned. At one time, the company’s system extended west to Madison, north to Sheboygan, and south to Kenosha. [Source:History Just Ahead: A Guide to Wisconsin’s Historical Markers edited by Sarah Davis McBride, p. 29]

A Google a Day asks a history question: “Whose death did the commander of the Confederate forces say was like “losing my right arm”?”

Daily Bread for 6.29.16

Good morning, Whitewater.

Midweek in Whitewater will be mostly sunny with a high of eighty. Sunrise is 5:19 AM and sunset 8:37 PM, for 15h 17m 22s of daytime. The moon is a waning crescent with 30.7% of its visible disk illuminated.

Whitewater’s Cable Television Committee meets this morning at 9 AM.

On this day in 1943, Pres. Roosevelt writes to J. Robert Oppenheimer:


June 29, 1943


My dear Dr. Oppenheimer:

I have recently reviewed with Dr. Bush the highly important and secret program of research, development and manufacture with which you are familiar. I was very glad to hear of the excellent work which is being done in a number of places in this country under the immediate supervision of General L.R. Groves and the general direction of the Committee of which Dr. Bush is Chairman. The successful solution of the problem is of the utmost importance to the national safety, and I am confident that the work will be completed in as short a time as possible as the result of the wholehearted cooperation of all concerned.

I am writing to you as the leader of one group which is to play a vital role in the months ahead. I know that you and your colleagues are working on a hazardous matter under unusual circumstances. The fact that the outcome of your labors is of such great significance to the nation requires that this program be even more drastically guarded than other highly secret war development. I have therefore given directions that every precaution be taken to insure the security of your project and feel sure that those in charge will see that these orders are carried out. You are fully aware of the reasons why your endeavors and those of your associates must be circumscribed by very special restrictions. Nevertheless, I wish you would express to the scientists assembled with you my deep appreciation of their willingness to undertake the tasks which lie before them in spite of the dangers and the personal sacrifices. I am sure that we can rely on their continued wholehearted and unselfish labors. Whatever the enemy may be planning, American science will be equal to the challenge. With this thought in mind, I send this note of confidence and appreciation.

Though there are other important groups at work, I am writing only to you as the leader of one which is operating under very special conditions, and to General Groves. While this letter is secret, the contents of it may be disclosed to your associates under pledge of secrecy.

Very Sincerely Yours

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Dr. J. R. Oppenheimer
Post Office Box 1663
Santa Fe,
New Mexico

On this day in 1865, Wisconsinites raise money for disabled soldiers:

1865 – First Soldiers’ Home Fair Held

On this date the first Soldiers’ Home Fair was held in Milwaukee. It raised more than $110,000 and allowed the Wisconsin Soldiers’ Home Association to purchase land and establish the hospital which became the National Asylum for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch. This was later renamed the Veterans Administration Medical Center. [Source: History Just Ahead: A Guide to Wisconsin’s Historical Markers edited by Sarah Davis McBride, p. 22]

A Google a Day asks a question on art & architecture: “The north end of what footbridge is very near the magnificent baroque cathedral that is famous for the dome added by restorer Christopher Wren?”


Daily Bread for 6.28.16

Good morning, Whitewater.

Tuesday in town will be partly cloudy with a high of seventy-five. Sunrise is 5:19 AM and sunset 8:37 PM, for 15h 17m 58s of daytime. The moon is a waning crescent with 42.1 percent of its visible disk illuminated.

Whitewater’s Urban Forestry Commission meets at 4:30 PM, and later there will be a joint Common Council and CDA meeting at 6:00 PM.

On this day in 1919, the Germany signs the Treaty of Versailles with the Allied Powers:

Cover of the English version.  Via Wikipedia.
Cover of the English version. Via Wikipedia.

The Treaty of Versailles (French: Traité de Versailles) was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919, exactly five years after theassassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The other Central Powers on the German side of World War I were dealt with in separate treaties.[7] Although the armistice, signed on 11 November 1918, ended the actual fighting, it took six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude the peace treaty. The treaty was registered by the Secretariat of the League of Nations on 21 October 1919.

Of the many provisions in the treaty, one of the most important and controversial required “Germany [to] accept the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage” during the war (the other members of the Central Powers signed treaties containing similar articles). This article, Article 231, later became known as the War Guilt clause. The treaty forced Germany to disarm, make substantial territorial concessions, and pay reparations to certain countries that had formed the Entente powers. In 1921 the total cost of these reparations was assessed at 132 billion Marks (then $31.4 billion or £6.6 billion, roughly equivalent to US $442 billion or UK £284 billion in 2016). At the time economists, notably John Maynard Keynes, predicted that the treaty was too harsh – a “Carthaginian peace” – and said the reparations figure was excessive and counter-productive, views that, since then, have been the subject of ongoing debate by historians and economists from several countries. On the other hand, prominent figures on the Allied side such as French MarshalFerdinand Foch criticized the treaty for treating Germany too leniently.

The result of these competing and sometimes conflicting goals among the victors was a compromise that left no one content: Germany was neither pacified nor conciliated, nor was it permanently weakened. The problems that arose from the treaty would lead to the Locarno Treaties, which improved relations between Germany and the other European Powers, and the re-negotiation of the reparation system resulting in the Dawes Plan, the Young Plan, and the indefinite postponement of reparations at the Lausanne Conference of 1932.

On this day in 1832, Gen. Atkinson heads toward Lake Koshkonong:

1832 – Atkinson starts up Rock River in Black Hawk War

On this date General Henry Atkinson and the Second Army began its trip into the Wisconsin wilderness in a major effort against Black Hawk. The “Army of the Frontier” was formed of 400 U.S. Army Regulars and 2,100 volunteer militiamen in order to participate in the Black Hawk War. The troops were headed toward the Lake Koshkonong area where the main camp of the British Band was rumored to be located. [Source:Along the Black Hawk Trail by William F. Stark, p. 93-94]

A Google a Day ask a geography question: “The castle that sits on top of the volcanic mound, Beblowe Craig, was founded by what 16th century king?”

Daily Bread for 6.27.16

Good morning, Whitewater.

Monday in town will be mostly sunny  with a high of eighty-two.  Sunrise is 5:18 AM and sunset 8:37 PM, for 15h 18m 30s of daytime.  The moon is a waning gibbous with 53.7% of its visible disk illuminated.

Whitewater’s School Board meets tonight at 6:45 PM, with the open session of the meeting beginning at 7 PM.

On this day in 1985, Route 66 is decertified:


U.S. Route 66 (US 66 or Route 66), also known as the Will Rogers Highway and also known as the Main Street of America or the Mother Road, was one of the original highways within the U.S. Highway System. US 66 was established on November 11, 1926, with road signs erected the following year.[4] The highway, which became one of the most famous roads in America, originally ran from Chicago, Illinois, through Missouri, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas,New Mexico, and Arizona before ending at Santa Monica, California, covering a total of 2,448 miles (3,940 km).[5] It was recognized in popular culture by both the hit song “(Get Your Kicks on) Route 66” and the Route 66 television show in the 1960s.

US 66 served as a major path for those who migrated west, especially during the Dust Bowl of the 1930s, and the road supported the economies of the communities through which it passed. People doing business along the route became prosperous due to the growing popularity of the highway, and those same people later fought to keep the highway alive in the face of the growing threat of being bypassed by the new Interstate Highway System.

US 66 underwent many improvements and realignments over its lifetime, and it was officially removed from the United States Highway System on June 27, 1985,[6] after it had been replaced in its entirety by segments of the Interstate Highway System. Portions of the road that passed through Illinois, Missouri, New Mexico, and Arizona have been designated a National Scenic Byway of the name “Historic Route 66“, which is returning to some maps.[7][8] Several states have adopted significant bypassed sections of the former US 66 into the state road network as State Route 66.

On this day in 1837, Solomon Juneau founds a newspaper:

On this date the Milwaukee Sentinel, the oldest newspaper in the state, was founded as a weekly publication by Solomon Juneau, who also was Milwaukee’s first mayor. [Source: History Just Ahead: A Guide to Wisconsin’s Historical Markers edited by Sarah Davis McBride, p. 19]

A Google a Day asks a science question: “What was Robert Brown looking at through a microscope when he found evidence of the 1827 scientific concept named in his honor?”

Daily Bread for 6.26.16

Good morning, Whitewater.

Morning thunderstorms will give way to partly cloudy afternoon skies with a high of ninety. Sunrise is 5:18 AM and sunset 8:37 PM, for 15h 18m 58s of daytime. The moon is a waxing gibbous with 63.8% of its visible disk illuminated.

Chinese shoppers at the Ginza shopping center in Jinan, beset by recent floods, found that water marred their retail experience:

Friday’s FW poll asked if readers thought that the Bucks would make the playoffs in 2017. A majority of readers thought that they would, with 58.62% of respondents answering that the Bucks would be in the post-season.

On this day in 1945, fifty nations sign the United Nations Charter at a ceremony in San Francisco:

The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) of 1945 is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization.[1] It was signed at the San Francisco War Memorial and Performing Arts Center in San Francisco, United States, on 26 June 1945, by 50 of the 51 original member countries. (Poland, the other original member, which was not represented at the conference, signed it two months later.) It entered into force on 24 October 1945, after being ratified by the original five permanent members of the Security Council—the Republic of China (later replaced by the People’s Republic of China), France, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (later replaced by the Russian Federation), the United Kingdom, and the United States—and a majority of the other signatories.

As a charter, it is a constituent treaty, and all members are bound by its articles. Furthermore, Article 103 of the Charter states that obligations to the United Nations prevail over all other treaty obligations.[1][2] Most countries in the world have now ratified the Charter.

After the Black Hawk War, Congress creates new land districts, including ones in present-day Wisconsin:

1834 – New Land Districts Created

On this date an Act of Congress created the Green Bay land district (east of a line from the northern boundary of Illinois to the Wisconsin River) and west of this, the Wisconsin Land district. The act followed land cessions by Native Americans defeated in the Black Hawk War. The creation of the land districts opened up much of southeastern Wisconsin for settlement. [Source: Fond du Lac County Local History Web]

Daily Bread for 6.25.16

Good morning, Whitewater.

Saturday in town will be warm and mostly sunny with a high of ninety.  Sunrise is 5:18 AM and sunset 8:37 PM, for 15h 19m 23s of daytime.  The moon is a waning gibbous with 74.8% of its visible disk illuminated.

Perhaps, just perhaps, the campaign isn’t genuine anyway:

On this day in 1950, North Korea’s Communist regime begins the Korean War:

The Korean War… began when North Korea invaded South Korea.[36][37] The United Nations, with the United States as the principal force, came to the aid of South Korea. China, with assistance from the Soviet Union, came to the aid of North Korea. The war arose from the division of Korea at the end of World War II and from the global tensions of the Cold War that developed immediately afterwards.

Korea was ruled by Japan from 1910 until the closing days of World War II. In August 1945, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan, as a result of an agreement with the United States, and liberated Korea north of the 38th parallel. U.S. forces subsequently moved into the south. By 1948, as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea was split in to two separate governments. Both governments claimed to be the legitimate government of Korea, and neither side accepted the border as permanent. The civil war escalated into open warfare when North Korean forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—moved to the south to unite the country on 25 June 1950.[38] On that day, the United Nations Security Council recognized this North Korean act as invasion and called for an immediate ceasefire.[39] On 27 June, the Security Council adopted S/RES/83: Complaint of aggression upon the Republic of Korea and decided the formation and dispatch of the UN Forces in Korea. Twenty-one countries of the United Nations eventually contributed to the defense of South Korea, with the United States providing 88% of the UN’s military personnel.

After the first two months of the conflict, South Korean forces were on the point of defeat, forced back to thePusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Inchon, and cut off many of the North Korean attackers. Those that escaped envelopment and capture were rapidly forced back north all the way to the border with China at the Yalu River, or into the mountainous interior. At this point, in October 1950, Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war.[38] Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951. After these dramatic reversals of fortune, which saw Seoul change hands four times, the last two years of conflict became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel. The war in the air, however, was never a stalemate. North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in air-to-air combat for the first time in history, and Soviet pilots covertly flew in defense of their Communist allies.

The fighting ended on 27 July 1953, when an armistice was signed. The agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, and allowed the return of prisoners. However, no peace treaty has been signed, and the two Koreas are technically still at war. Periodic clashes, many of which were deadly, have continued to the present.

On this day in 1863, the 25th Wisconsin heads to Greenville, Mississippi:

The 25th Wisconsin Infantry participated in an expedition from Snyder’s Bluff to Greenville, Mississippi.

Daily Bread for 6.24.16

Good morning, Whitewater.

Friday in town will be mostly sunny with a high of eighty-four. Sunrise is 5:17 AM and sunset is 8:37 PM, for 15h 19m 44s of daytime. The moon is a waning gibbous, with 83.2% of its visible disk illuminated.

On this day in 1948, the Soviets begin a blockade of West Berlin, in an effort to isolate that part of the city from the West:

 More details C-47 Skytrains unloading at Tempelhof Airport during the Berlin Airlift.
C-47 Skytrains unloading at Tempelhof Airport during the Berlin Airlift. Via Wikipedia.

The Berlin Blockade (24 June 1948 – 12 May 1949) was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War. During the multinational occupation of post–World War II Germany, the Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies‘ railway, road, and canal access to the sectors of Berlin under Western control. The Soviets offered to drop the blockade if the Western Allies withdrew the newly introduced Deutsche mark from West Berlin.

In response, the Western Allies organized the Berlin airlift to carry supplies to the people of West Berlin, a difficult feat given the city’s population.[1][2] Aircrews from the United States Air Force, the British Royal Air Force, the Royal Canadian Air Force, the Royal Australian Air Force, the Royal New Zealand Air Force, and theSouth African Air Force[3]:338 flew over 200,000 flights in one year, providing to the West Berliners up to 8,893 tons of necessities each day, such as fuel and food.[4] The Soviets did not disrupt the airlift for fear this might lead to open conflict.[5]

By the spring of 1949, the airlift was clearly succeeding, and by April it was delivering more cargo than had previously been transported into the city by rail. On 12 May 1949, the USSR lifted the blockade of West Berlin.

6.26.1946 was a rainy day for Mellen, Wisconsin:

1946 – Most Precipitation in One Day

On this date Mellen, Wisconsin received 11.72 inches of rain within a single day. This set a record for Wisconsin for precipitation received within 24 hours. [Source: National Weather Service]

A Google a Day asks about language: “What is the largest surviving Latin American language reaching from Columbia to Chile?”

Daily Bread for 6.23.16

Good morning, Whitewater.

Thursday in town will bring an even chance of occasional showers or thunderstorms with a high of seventy-three. Sunrise is 5:17 AM and sunset 8:37 PM, for 15h 19m 59s of daytime. The moon is a waning gibbous with 90.7% of its visible disk illuminated.

There is a Downtown Whitewater Board meeting scheduled for this morning at 8 AM.

On this day in 1868, Wisconsin resident Christopher Latham Sholes and two partners receive a patent for a “Type-Writer”:

A 45-degree view of a wooden device with piano-like keyboard and, centered on its top, a metal disk over which a mechanical arm with two spindles is suspended. The machine patented on June 23, 1868, resembled "a cross between a piano and a kitchen table." Via Wikipedia.
A 45-degree view of a wooden device with piano-like keyboard and, centered on its top, a metal disk over which a mechanical arm with two spindles is suspended. The machine patented on June 23, 1868, resembled “a cross between a piano and a kitchen table.”
Via Wikipedia.

The Sholes and Glidden typewriter had its origin in a printing machine designed in 1866 by Christopher Latham Sholes to assist in printing page numbers in books, and serial numbers on tickets and other items.[2] Sholes, a Wisconsin printer, formed a partnership with Samuel W. Soule, also a printer, and together they began development work in Charles F. Kleinsteuber’s machine shop, a converted mill in northern Milwaukee. Carlos S. Glidden, an inventor who frequented the machine shop, became interested in the device and suggested that it might be adapted to print alphabetical characters as well.[3] In July 1867, Glidden read an article in Scientific American describing “the Pterotype”, a writing machine invented by John Pratt and recently featured in an issue of London Engineering. Glidden showed the article to Sholes, who thought the machine “complicated and liable to get out of order”,[4] and was convinced that a better machine could be designed. To that point, several dozen patents for printing devices had been issued in the United States and abroad.[5] None of the machines, however, had been successful or effective products.[5][6]

In November 1866, following their successful collaboration on the numbering machine,[4] Sholes asked Soule to join him and Glidden in developing the new device. Mathias Schwalbach, a German clockmaker, was hired to assist with construction. To test the proposed machine’s feasibility, a key was taken from a telegraph machine and modified to print the letter “W”;[3] by September 1867, a model with a full alphabet, numbers, and rudimentary punctuation had been completed, and it was used to compose letters to acquaintances in the hope of selling the invention, or procuring funds for its manufacture.[7] One recipient, James Densmore, immediately bought a 25% interest for $600, the cost of the machine’s development to that date.[8][9] Densmore saw the machine for the first time in March 1868, and was unimpressed; he thought it clumsy and impractical, and declared it “good for nothing except to show that its underlying principles were sound”.[10] Among other deficiencies, the device held paper in a horizontal frame, which limited the thickness of the paper that could be used and made alignment difficult.[11] A patent for the “Type-Writer” was granted on June 23, 1868, and, despite the device’s flaws, Densmore rented a building in Chicago in which to begin its manufacture. Fifteen units were produced before a lack of funds forced the venture back to Milwaukee.[12]

A Google a Day asks a science question: “As a testament to its adaptability in urban areas, what kind of animal strolled into a popular sandwich shop in the Chicago Loop area in the spring of 2007?”

Daily Bread for 6.19.16

Good morning, Whitewater.

Father’s Day in town will be sunny and warm, with a high of eighty-nine. Sunrise is 5:16 AM and sunset is 20:36 PM, for 15h 20m 24s of daytime. We’ve a full moon, with 99.1% of its disk illuminated.

Friday’s FW poll asked about the final NBA game of the season: what did readers think would happen in Game 7 between the Cavs and Warriors? A majority (53.85%) of respondents gave the edge to Golden State.

This has been a time of exciting sports, with the NBA, and both European and Copa America soccer matches. We play the very formidable Argentinian team on Tuesday at 8 PM CT.

On this day in 1944, the Battle of the Philippine Sea begins:

The Battle of the Philippine Sea (June 19–20, 1944) was a decisive naval battle of World War II that eliminated the Imperial Japanese Navy’s ability to conduct large-scale carrier actions. It took place during the United States’ amphibious invasion of the Mariana Islands during the Pacific War. The battle was the last of five major “carrier-versus-carrier” engagements between American and Japanese naval forces, and involved elements of the United States Navy‘s Fifth Fleet as well as ships and land-based aircraft from the Imperial Japanese Navy‘s Mobile Fleetand nearby island garrisons.

The aerial theatre of the battle was nicknamed the Great Marianas Turkey Shoot by American aviators for the severely disproportional loss ratio inflicted upon Japanese aircraft by American pilots and anti-aircraft gunners.[2]During a debriefing after the first two air battles a pilot from USS Lexington remarked “Why, hell, it was just like an old-time turkey shoot down home!”[3] The outcome is generally attributed to American improvements in pilot and crew training and tactics, war technology (including the top-secret anti-aircraft proximity fuze), and ship and aircraft design.[N 1][N 2] Although at the time the battle appeared to be a missed opportunity to destroy the Japanese fleet, the Imperial Japanese Navy had lost the bulk of its carrier air strength and would never recover.[1] During the course of the battle, American submarines torpedoed and sank two of the largest Japanese fleet carriers taking part in the battle.[4]:331–333

This was the largest carrier-to-carrier battle in history.[5]

On this day in 1917, it’s a name change for Britain’s royal family:

…during the third year of World War I, Britain’s King George V orders the British royal family to dispense with the use of German titles and surnames, changing the surname of his own family, the decidedly Germanic Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, to Windsor….

Daily Bread for 6.18.16

Good morning, Whitewater.

Saturday in town will be sunny and warm, with a high of eighty-two. Sunrise is 5:16 AM and sunset 8:36 PM, for 15h 20m 20s of daytime. The moon is a 96.2% of its visible disk illuminated.

A videographer recently recorded a large number of stingrays near Tampa. It’s quite the sight:

On this day in 1815, French imperialist Napoleon meets his Waterloo:

Jan Willem Pieneman: The Battle of Waterloo (1824). Duke of Wellington, centre, flanked on his left by Lord Uxbridge in hussar uniform. On the image's far left, Cpl. Styles of the Royal Dragoons flourishes the eagle of the 105eme Ligne. The wounded Prince of Orange is carried from the field in the foreground. Via Wikipedia.
Jan Willem Pieneman: The Battle of Waterloo (1824). Duke of Wellington, centre, flanked on his left by Lord Uxbridge in hussar uniform. On the image’s far left, Cpl. Styles of the Royal Dragoons flourishes the eagle of the 105eme Ligne. The wounded Prince of Orange is carried from the field in the foreground. Via Wikipedia.

The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815, near Waterloo in present-day Belgium, then part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. A French army under the command of Napoleon Bonaparte was defeated by two of the armies of the Seventh Coalition: an Anglo-led Allied army under the command of the Duke of Wellington, and a Prussian army under the command of Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, Prince of Wahlstatt. The battle resulted in the end of Bonaparte’s reign and of the First French Empire, and set a chronological milestone between serial European wars and decades of relative peace….

Waterloo cost Wellington around 15,000 dead or wounded and Blücher some 7,000 (810 of which were suffered by just one unit: the 18th Regiment, which served in Bülow’s 15th Brigade, had fought at both Frichermont and Plancenoit, and won 33 Iron Crosses).[170] Napoleon’s losses were 24,000 to 26,000 killed or wounded and included 6,000 to 7,000 captured with an additional 15,000 deserting subsequent to the battle and over the following days.[7]

22 June. This morning I went to visit the field of battle, which is a little beyond the village of Waterloo, on the plateau of Mont-Saint-Jean; but on arrival there the sight was too horrible to behold. I felt sick in the stomach and was obliged to return. The multitude of carcasses, the heaps of wounded men with mangled limbs unable to move, and perishing from not having their wounds dressed or from hunger, as the Allies were, of course, obliged to take their surgeons and waggons with them, formed a spectacle I shall never forget. The wounded, both of the Allies and the French, remain in an equally deplorable state.

—Major W. E. Frye After Waterloo: Reminiscences of European Travel 1815–1819.[171]

Daily Bread for 6.17.16

Good morning, Whitewater.

Friday in town will be sunny with a high of eighty-five.  Sunrise is 5:15 AM and sunset 8:36 PM, for 15h 20m 12s of daytime.  The moon is a waxing gibbous with 91.5% of its visible disk illuminated.

On this day in 1885, the Statue of Liberty arrives in New York Harbor:

…the dismantled Statue of Liberty, a gift of friendship from the people of France to the people of America, arrives in New York Harbor after being shipped across the Atlantic Ocean in 350 individual pieces packed in more than 200 cases. The copper and iron statue, which was reassembled and dedicated the following year in a ceremony presided over by U.S. President Grover Cleveland, became known around the world as an enduring symbol of freedom and democracy.

Intended to commemorate the American Revolution and a century of friendship between the U.S. and France, the statue was designed by French sculptor Frederic-Auguste Bartholdi (who modeled it after his own mother), with assistance from engineer Gustave Eiffel, who later developed the iconic tower in Paris bearing his name. The statue was initially scheduled to be finished by 1876, the 100th anniversary of America’s Declaration of Independence; however, fundraising efforts, which included auctions, a lottery and boxing matches, took longer than anticipated, both in Europe and the U.S., where the statue’s pedestal was to be financed and constructed. The statue alone cost the French an estimated $250,000 (more than $5.5 million in today’s money).

Finally completed in Paris in the summer of 1884, the statue, a robed female figure with an uplifted arm holding a torch, reached its new home on Bedloe’s Island in New York Harbor (between New York City and Hudson County, New Jersey) on June 17, 1885. After being reassembled, the 450,000-pound statue was officially dedicated on October 28, 1886, by President Cleveland, who said, “We will not forget that Liberty has here made her home; nor shall her chosen altar be neglected.” Standing more than 305 feet from the foundation of its pedestal to the top of its torch, the statue, dubbed “Liberty Enlightening the World” by Bartholdi, was taller than any structure in New York City at the time. The statue was originally copper-colored, but over the years it underwent a natural color-change process called patination that produced its current greenish-blue hue….

On this day in 1673, explorers reach ‘this so renowned river’:

Marquette & Joliet Reach the Mississippi

“Here we are, then, on this so renowned river, all of whose peculiar features I have endeavored to note carefully.” It’s important to recall that Marquette and Joliet did not discover the Mississippi: Indians had been using it for 10,000 years, Spanish conquistador Hernan De Soto had crossed it in 1541, and fur traders Groseilliers and Radisson may have reached it in the 1650s. But Marquette and Joliet left the first detailed reports and proved that the Mississippi flowed into the Gulf of Mexico, which opened the heart of the continent to French traders, missionaries, and soldiers. View a Map of Marquette & Joliet’s route.

A Google a Day asks an architecture question: “Of what type of architecture is the Paris Cathedral that in 1970 was the site of Charles de Gaulle’s funeral?”

Daily Bread for 6.16.16

Good morning, Whitewater.

Thursday in town will be  cloudy with a high of seventy-two.  Sunrise is 5:15 AM and sunset 8:35 PM, for 15h 20m 00s of daytime.  The moon is a waxing gibbous with 85.4% of its visible disk illuminated.

Whitewater’s Landmarks Commission meets at 6:30 PM.  Whitewater’s Fire Department holds a business meeting this evening, also at 6:30 PM.

On this day in 1903, Ford incorporates:

At 9:30 in the morning on this day in 1903, Henry Ford and other prospective stockholders in the Ford Motor Company meet in Detroit to sign the official paperwork required to create a new corporation. Twelve stockholders were listed on the forms, which were signed, notarized and sent to the office of Michigan’s secretary of state. The company was officially incorporated the following day, when the secretary of state’s office received the articles of association.

Ford had built his first gasoline-powered vehicle–which he called the Quadricycle–in a workshop behind his home in 1896, while he was working as the chief engineer for the main plant of the Edison Illuminating Company in Detroit. He made two unsuccessful attempts to start a company to manufacture automobiles before 1903. A month after the Ford Motor Company was established, the first Ford car was assembled at a plant on Mack Avenue in Detroit.

In the early days of Ford, only a few cars were assembled per day, and they were built by hand by small groups of workers from parts made to order by other companies. With the introduction of the Model T in 1908, Ford succeeded in his mission to produce an affordable, efficient and reliable automobile for everyone: within a decade, nearly half the cars in America were Model Ts. The sensational demand for the “Tin Lizzie” led Ford to develop mass-production methods, including large production plants, the use of standardized, interchangeable parts and, in 1913, the world’s first moving assembly line for cars. In 1914, to further improve productivity, Ford introduced the $5 daily wage for an eight-hour day for his workers (up from $2.34 for nine hours), setting a standard for the industry….

On 6.16.1832, the first battle of the Black Hawk War occurs:

On this date the Battle of Pecatonica took place between a band of Kickapoo Indians and troops led by Henry Dodge. Dodge, along with two others were on their way to Fort Hamilton in Wiota, WI when they passed a white settler named Henry Appel. As the men reached the fort, rifle shots rang; the settler had been ambushed and killed by a group of Indians. Dodge and 29 men went in pursuit of the Kickapoo Indians who concealed themselves under the river bank of the Pecatonica. As Dodge and his men approached, the Indians opened fire, injuring four and killing three.

Dodge ordered his men to attack. The Indians, unable to reload quickly enough, were fired at point-blank. Nine died immediately and two others were shot as they tried to escape. This battle was the military’s first victory in the Black Hawk War. [Source: The Black Hawk War by Frank E. Stevens and Along the Black Hawk Trail by William F. Stark.]

A Google a Day asks a question on literature: “What is the name of the facility where Holly goes each week to visit Salvatore Tomato?”